While most individuals focus on the appearance of facial skin as
evidence of an ageing appearance, the skin on the body can also
make individuals appear older than they are. The unsightly
appearance of fat and cellulite contributes to an older perceived
The etiology of cellulite is complex, multifactorial and not
completely understood. Many attempts have been made to define
cellulite − often incorrectly − with no adequate explanation.
Cellulite is a term used to describe a visible, physical change seen
frequently in women and only rarely in men. The characteristic
appearance is one of an undulating skin surface associated with
increased fatty deposits. About 80-90% of women either have or
will have cellulite.
An understanding of cellulite requires an appreciation of the
physiology of adipose and connective tissues. The development of
cellulite is a complex condition involving a regional distribution of
fatty tissue.
One cause of cellulite is the reduction of capillary blood flow.
Decreased circulation slows down lipid metabolism and tends to
increase interstitial fluid, highlighting the appearance of the
cellulite by aggravating fatty mass, creating a dimpling effect.
Cellulite is essentially a migration of part of the superficial and
deep fat into the dermis. Another underlying cause of cellulite is
weakened connective tissue. The fascia, weakened by collagenase
(an enzyme that breaks down collagen), can no longer structurally
contain the fat mass, so it eventually pushes upward toward the skin
surface, producing a wavy surface. As the space expands in the
fatty layer due to movement of the fat mass, the remaining fat cells
enlarge to maximum capacity. Fat cells produce oestrogen, which
stimulates the fibroblast to produce more collagenase, thus setting
up a detrimental cycle.
Not only is it complex, but the appearance of fat and cellulite is a
difficult cosmetic target. Thus, pairing the topical application with
technology that assists with delivery to the skin can increase the
impact on skin appearance. Additionally, carefully screening
ingredients to identify those that target both the signs and sources
of an ageing appearance could increase the overall effectiveness
of the finished products. The following study evaluates the
effectiveness of a system of products created to decrease the
appearance of fat and cellulite that can contribute to an aged
appearance Assisting with the delivery of product to the skin is advantageous
when addressing difficult-to-treat cosmetic targets such as
cellulite. Galvanic currents have long been used to assist with the
delivery of key ingredients within properly formulated cosmetic

For improved cosmetic benefits, these currents can be
provided in the traditional constant format or, more recently, in
pulsating form to areas on the body that are most susceptible to fat
and cellulite. A constant galvanic current sets to a predetermined current level
and remains throughout the treatment cycle, whereas a pulsating
galvanic current oscillates or pulses between two current levels
within the same polarity. A pulsating galvanic current
does not further enhance delivery of like-charged ingredients over
a direct galvanic current of the same root mean square. However,
Nu Skin® patent pending studies have shown that a pulsating
current acts as physical vibration − although not felt by the user −
that can set in motion a chain of events that has specific benefits to
areas of thicker skin such as the skin on thigh or abdomen.
Physical vibrations cause physical stimulus to the endothelium,
which induces the production of nitric oxide (NO). NO induces
vasodilatation, resulting in improved blood flow and movement of
fluids. Enhanced movement of fluids allows for more nutrients to
be delivered and stimulates the efficient removal of waste from
skin cells.
Thus formulating the topical products to be compatible with
application of galvanic currents can improve the cosmetic results
perceived by the consumer.
Nu Skin® contracted a clinical study with an independent clinical research
organisation to study the ageLOC® Body products on 30 people −
ageLOC® Galvanic Body Spa, ageLOC® Body Shaping Gel and
ageLOC® Dermatic Effects − on the upper arm, upper thigh-buttocks
and lower abdominal regions as recommended. ageLOC® Dermatic
Effects was used twice daily while the ageLOC® Galvanic Body Spa
and ageLOC® Body Shaping Gel were used three times per week for
five minutes per assigned area. The 12-week research included clinical
grading, subject self-assessment, instrumentation (where applicable),
and digital photography with assessments being taken at baseline and
weeks one, four, eight and 12.
Considering the difficulty in making marked short-term gains when
targeting these areas with topical products, it was of note that limited
improvements were seen at weeks one and four.
However, at week eight, dermatological grading found that 86% of
the subjects showed notable improvements in skin smoothness in the
arms and abdominal areas and 96% in the thigh-buttocks area. The
percentage of subjects showing improvement in the abdomen increased
to 100% at week 12.
Skin firmness was also observed during dermatological grading in
each target area. At week eight, 21% of participants had firmness
improvements in the abdominal area and 32% on the upper arms
and thighs. These percentages increased to 57% in the abdominal
area, 54% on the upper arms and 82% on the thighs at 12 weeks.

The overall appearance of subjects was also graded by a
dermatologist. By week 12, 69% of subjects showed graded
improvements in the thigh-buttocks area, 80% in the abdominal
area and 89% on the upper arm.
Additionally, statistically significant graded improvements were
also seen at each target area for skin smoothing, lifting and overall
appearance at week 12 and in some cases earlier at week eight.
The grading dermatologist observed improvements in skin
smoothing, lifting and overall appearance of fat and cellulite.
When used as a system, ageLOC® Body Shaping Gel used three times per week, along with ageLOC® Galvanic Body Spa and ageLOC®
Dermatic Effects used twice daily, can have a positive impact on the appearance of fat and cellulite in the upper arm, lower abdomen and
thigh-buttocks area starting at week eight and improving through week 12.

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